Close

The Costs of the Punishment Clause

The Punishment Clause in the Thirteenth Amendment, permits involuntary servitude so long as it is imposed pursuant to a criminal punishment. Originating as Black codes and convict leasing, these practices have …

Revenue Over Public Safety

Economic and financial incentives for law enforcement, state, local and federal governments, and for-profit private corporations have fueled punitive enforcement and mass incarceration. This report details economic incentives that are …

Spiraling Criminal Debt

North Carolina in recent decades moved to a user- fee model allowing courts to impose any number of fines and fees when a criminal case is resolved through a plea …
Close