Jane Doe, a 27 year old medical assistant with three children, lives in a predominantly black neighborhood in Buffalo, NY. In July 2015, she was driving and arrived at a traffic checkpoint operated by the Buffalo Police Department. A police officer approached the car and asked to see her documents. Her three children were secured in their booster seats. The officer without asking about the children’s height and weight told her she needed a 5 point harness. Ms. Doe was then issued three seatbelt violations and a violation for driving on a leaner’s permit. Ms. Doe bought new booster seats and a 5 point harness for her younger child. The Buffalo Traffic Violations Agency (BTVA) found her guilty of all four violations, assessing eight points on her driver’s license, $446 in fines and $450 for a Driver Responsibility Assessment. During this time, Ms. Doe was a full time student with no income. BTVA refused to accept partial payments or provide a payment plan. Unable to pay, her learner’s permit was suspended. In 2018, she used her tax refund to pay her traffic tickets and reinstate her permit.